Leviticus 4:1-12 Sin Offering: If someone sins a sin that is not purposely thought out, being a priest, he must offer a bull as a sacrifice so his sin’s guilt does not get passed onto the people. The priest shall dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle it seven times before the Lord, in front of the veil of the sanctuary, some on the horns of the altar in the tent of meeting, and pour the rest of the blood in the base of the altar. The fat shall be removed and burned on the altar like the peace offerings. The bull’s skin, flesh, head, legs, entrails, and dung shall be carried outside the camp in a clean place, on the ash heap, and burned there with fire of wood.
Notes: This offering is mandatory. Carry outside the camp: This was a symbolic gesture of removing the sin from the people. Sprinkling of blood: A core part of the ritual is the sprinkling of blood. Since this is a purifying act, it implies that the holy objects are considered to be defiled by the sins of the people. Blood on the veil: Only once a year on the Day of Atonement is the blood brought inside the veil into the Holy Place where the Ark and the Mercy Seat are kept to atone for the sins of the people.
Leviticus 4:13-21 If whole congregation sins a sin that is not purposely thought out, and comes to the realization that what they did was a sin, must offer a bull as a sacrifice in the same way the priest must.
Notes: The sacrifice for the sin of the Priest and the entire congregation as a whole (not an individual personal sin) is much more involved showing that it bears a heavier responsibility before the Lord.
Leviticus 4:22-26 If a leader sins a sin that is not purposely thought out, and comes to the realization that what he did was a sin, must offer a male goat as a sacrifice. The blood is done the same except for not sprinkling it seven times on the veil.
Leviticus 4:27-35 If a common person sins a sin that is not purposely thought out, and comes to the realization that what he did was a sin, must offer a female goat or a female lamb as a sacrifice. The blood is done the same way has the leader’s sin offering.
Notes: Further discussion in Chapter 6 points to another difference for the leader and common person offering that the meat is not burned outside the camp, but eaten by the priests, for it is Holy.