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Exodus - Chapter 28

Bible Study Notes

Exodus 28:1-14 The Lord chooses Aaron and Aaron’s sons (Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar) as priests. Holy garments shall be made for Aaron and his sons to wear when they serve the Lord. The garment shall include a breastpiece, ephod, robe, coat of checker work, turban, and a sash.

Yarns and twined linen, skillfully worked, shall be used to make the Ephod (Remembrance).

For Aaron, two onyx stones shall have engraved on them the 12 tribes of Israel, six per stone, enclosed in gold settings. They shall go on the shoulder pieces of the ephod for a remembrance.

Exodus 28:15-30 The breastpiece (Judgment). Made like the style of Ephod, but square. In it shall be set four rows of stones set in gold.

Row 1 = Sardius, topaz, and carbuncle
Row 2 = Emerald, sapphire, and diamond
Row 3 = Jacinth, agate, and amethyst
Row 4 – Beryl, onyx, and jasper

Each stone represents one of the 12 tribes of Israel with their engraved tribe name in the stone. The breastpiece shall be attached to the Ephod by twisted gold chains.

Aaron shall bear this breastpiece on his heart when he goes inside the Holy of Holies through the veil in remembrance before the Lord.

The Urim and Thummim shall also go in the breastpiece. Aaron shall bear the judgment of the people of Israel on his heart before the Lord regularly.

Notes: The ephod and the breastpiece together represent the value that the Lord places upon his people as a whole nation. These two pieces of Aaron’s clothing also indicate that he is to act as a representative on behalf of the 12 tribes before the Lord in order to bring them to remembrance.

The Urim and Thummim, whatever they were, were used in seeking the Lord’s decision on particular matters.

Exodus 28:31-35 The robe shall be blue. It will have a hole for the head, with a  woven binding so it won’t tear. Pomegranates shall hang from the hem along with gold bells in between them, all around the hem. Its sound shall be heard while Aaron is ministering behind the veil in the Holy of Holies.

Notes: The sound of the tinkling bells sewn on the hem of the high priest’s robe signaled those waiting outside the Holy Place that their representative ministering before the Lord was still alive and moving about, fulfilling his duties.

The Lord did not need to be alerted to Aaron’s presence by the sound of bells, but they served to greet God reverently when Aaron entered and left the tabernacle.

Exodus 28:36-38 An engraved gold plate that says, “Holy to the Lord” shall be fastened to the front of a turban place on Aaron’s forehead. Aaron shall bear the guilt of the holy things that the people of Israel consecrate as their holy gifts to the Lord. This way the gifts shall always be accepted.

Notes: The turban and plate represents their approach to God must be done with reverence.

Exodus 28:39-43 A coat shall be weaved like checker work and the sash shall be embroidered with needlework. Aaron’s sons shall wear coats, sashes, and caps. After dressing Aaron and his sons, Moses shall anoint, ordain, and consecrate them for service as priests to the Lord. Their undergarments shall extend from the hip to thighs. They must be wearing these garments when they approach the Tabernacle or near the altar to minister. If they don’t, they will bear the guilt and die.

See Bible Pictures "Holy Garments of the Priests"

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