Exodus 24:1-3 The Lord told Moses to bring Aaron, Aaron’s sons, and seventy of the elders up the mountain to worship Him afar, while Moses alone shall come near to the Lord. Moses then told the people everything that the Lord had said including all the rules. The people promised to obey everything the Lord said.
Exodus 24:4-8 Moses then wrote down everything, of which the first 5 books of the Old Testament contain. Moses built an altar with 12 pillars (1 for each tribe of Israel). He chose young men to offer burnt and peace offerings to the Lord. Half the blood he put in basins and the rest he splashed against the altar. Moses then read to the people out of the book of which he wrote the words of the Lord. The people again promised to obey everything the Lord had commanded through His word. Moses then took the blood from the basin and threw it on the people. Through the sacrificial blood, the covenant was sealed and the agreement made between the people, through the sacrifice, and to the Lord.
Notes: The young men are most probably a reference to firstborn children who officiated the office of sacrificing until the law appointed the Levites in their place.
Exodus 24:9-11 After the people were washed (covered) with the blood, Moses, Aaron, Aaron’s sons, and seventy of the elders were then granted to climb the mountain and see the Lord. Under the Lord’s feet was a pavement of Sapphire stone. They ate and drank in the Lord’s presence.
Notes: Moses, Aaron and his sons, and 70 of the elders partake in what the peace offering signifies: fellowship and communion in the presence of God. The description focuses on the fact that the men saw the God of Israel and remained unharmed. According to 33:20 “man shall not see me and live,” so the “seeing” here in 24:10 was something different from that of 33:20; cf. 33:23, which perhaps denotes a partial, as opposed to a full and complete, vision of God. The description of the clear surface they saw under his feet may indicate that this is all they saw of God.
Exodus 24:12-18 The Lord instructed Moses alone to come up and receive the 10 commandments engraved in stone. Moses took Joshua with him and told the elders to wait for them. If they had a problem they were to see Aaron and Hur. The Glory of the Lord was hidden by a cloud covering the mountain for 6 days as Moses waited for the Lord to speak to him. On the 7th day, the Lord revealed His Glory as a devouring fire to Moses and the children of Israel witnessed it. Moses entered the cloud covering where he remained for forty days and forty nights.
Notes: During these days Moses received all the instructions on the tabernacle and its furnishings and accoutrements.