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Exodus - Chapter 12

Bible Study Notes

Exodus 12:1-6 The current month they are to leave Egypt will be the Jews new 1st month of their year. A 1 year old male lamb (or kid goat) without blemish (Jesus was without blemish) will be taken into their home on the 10th of the month for each family. On the 14th of the month, they shall kill it at twilight.

Notes: Where the Lord had made a distinction in earlier plagues by protecting Israel’s land, livestock, and people from the effects he brought upon Egypt, the people of Israel are now called to act faithfully in order to appropriate the means by which the Lord will “pass over” them during the tenth plague.

Notes: Just as the plague will result in the death of a firstborn in every house in Egypt (see v. 30), Israel is given instructions for a lamb to be sacrificed on behalf of every household.

Notes: According to Josephus, it was customary in his day to kill the lamb at about 3:00 p.m. This was the time of day that Christ, the Christian’s Passover lamb (1 Cor. 5:7), died (Luke 23:44–46).

Exodus 12:7-13 They shall put some of the blood on the two doorposts and the lintel of the door to their houses (The blood on the cross). That night they shall eat the roasted flesh with bitter herbs and unleavened bread. None shall remain by morning. If there is, then it must be burned. The man of the house shall where his belt, sandals on, and staff in hand when he eats the meal in haste. The Lord calls this day, Passover, for He will pass through Egypt and strike the first-born. When the Lord sees the blood on the door, Death will ‘pass over’ their houses and death will not enter. (When Jesus’ blood is applied to us, death passes us over, and we pass over from spiritual death to spiritual life.

Notes: The Israelites would find the blood of the slain lamb to be a vivid reminder that a life had to be sacrificed in place of those in the home.

Exodus 12:14-20 The Jews shall celebrate this feast every year to remember. 7 days they shall eat unleavened bread. If they eat leaven (which later becomes symbolic of sin), they shall be cut off from Israel. They shall hold a holy assembly on day 1 and day 7, no work shall be done, only the work needed to prepare the food that they will eat. This feast is called the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

Exodus 12:21-28 Moses instructed the elders of Israel to get the lambs, slay them, and put the blood on their doors. They must stay indoors until morning. The people bowed their heads after hearing all the instructions for the Passover and worshipped the LORD. The children of Israel then performed everything Moses and Aaron commanded them.

Exodus 12:29-36 The LORD struck down the Egyptian first-born. They arose at midnight and cried aloud! Every house had at least one dead. That very night, Pharaoh summoned Moses and commanded him to get of Egypt. The Egyptians eagerly wanted the Jews out in case more of them died. The Jews took with them dough unleavened and plundered the Egyptians of their silver and gold on their way out of Egypt.

Notes: Israel’s obedience in asking for silver and gold jewelry and for clothing (v. 35) fulfills not only what the Lord had promised to Moses at the burning bush (3:22) but also what he had originally promised to Abraham, that his descendants would come out (of Egypt) “with great possessions” (Gen. 15:14).

Exodus 12:37-42 Six hundred thousand men, besides women and children (2 million) - (They entered Egypt 430 years earlier with only 70 persons), travelled from Rameses to Succoth with a mix of other people with all their flocks and herds. They baked unleavened cakes because they didn’t have a chance to wait for the dough to rise (leaven is used to rise the dough – hence the reason for the memorial of eating unleavened bread yearly). They made their bread fresh daily. 430 years they lived in Egypt, and they were finally leaving being watched and protected by the LORD.

Notes: A mixed multitude. Other Semitic peoples, other races, and perhaps some native Egyptians accompanied the departing nation. They preferred to be identified with the victorious nation and Jehovah God. Later, some of these became the troublemakers with whom Moses had to deal (Num. 11:4).

Exodus 12:43-50 No foreigner or hired worker shall eat of the Passover, except for purchased slaves (We are purchased slaves of Christ) that were circumcised (We followers of Christ have circumcised hearts). The flesh shall be eaten inside the house and no bones of the lamb shall be broken (Not one of Jesus’ bones were broken during His crucifixion). Strangers who sojourn with Israel in their land can keep the Passover if the males are circumcised.


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