Exodus 11:1 The Lord declared to Moses that He will bring one more plague upon Egypt, and then Pharaoh will let the children of Israel go. Not only will he let them go, he will drive them away completely!
Exodus 11:2-3 The Lord instructed the Hebrews to ask their Egyptian neighbors for their silver and gold jewelry on their way out of Egypt. The Lord will cause the Egyptians to have favor toward the Hebrews to be willing to give them these parting gifts, especially toward Moses.
Exodus 11:4-7 The Lord instructed Moses and in turn says to Pharaoh right after Pharaoh threatens Moses’ life, “Thus says the LORD: that a plague would begin at midnight, where He would go out in the midst of Egypt and kill EVERY firstborn. (From Pharaoh’s house, to the lowliest slave girl, to the cattle). Egypt will cry out like never before. The Lord will not touch anything of Israel.”
Notes: When the Lord spoke to Moses as he was preparing to go back to Egypt, he referred to Israel as “my firstborn son” (4:22) and indicated that Pharaoh’s refusal would result in the death of his firstborn (4:23). Since Pharaoh leads as his people’s representative, the plagues have extended not simply to him but also to his people, a fact which becomes even more poignant in the final plague when every firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die.
Exodus 11:8 Moses further told Pharaoh that, “The Egyptians will bow down and beg me and the children of Israel to get out Egypt!” Moses then left Pharaoh in hot anger.
Notes: The narrative does not tell the reader explicitly why Moses went out from Pharaoh in hot anger. As the one who has interacted with Pharaoh throughout and even pleaded with the Lord on his behalf, it may be that Moses found Pharaoh’s persistent pride infuriating because of the devastating effect it would have on the people of Egypt (cf. note on 9:34).
Exodus 11:9-11 The Lord told Moses that Pharaoh would not listen to the warning of the last plague in order that His wonders would be multiplied in Egypt. So the Lord hardened again Pharaoh’s heart so that Pharaoh would not let the children of Israel go!